|85-4||An opening spikelet of wild rice, Oryza rufipogon Griff. A wild character of early spikelet opening will be useful to produce heat-avoiding rice cultivars in the future. For further details, see Thanh et al. in this issue.
Plant type and seed morphology of WT and srs1 mutants. The SRS1/DEP2 gene encodes a novel protein without known functional domains. The SRS1/DEP2 gene regulates cell length and cell number in the lemma. For further details, see Abe et al. in this issue.
DAPI staining (blue) and immunostaining with the antibody against histone methylation (H3K27me1, green) of the onion metaphase chromosome. For further details, see Suzuki et al. in this issue.
Whole-mount in situ hybridization displaying the expression of AmphiFABP gene in an amphioxus embryo, a dorsal view of the early neurula. For further details, see Liu et al. in this issue.
Eggs of Drosophila melanogaster with no sperm (upper), with a sperm but not initiating embryogenesis (middle), and with a sperm surrounded by blastdermal cells on the surface. Eggs were stained with DAPI (magenta) and DROP 1.1 (green) that is an antibody labeling sperm. For further details, see Ohsako and Yamamoto in this issue.
A spike of an Aegilops tauschii accession (KU-2627) with a large deletion in the Vrn-Dt1 first intron. The large deletion was associated with the lack of vernalization requirement for flowering. For further details, see Takumi et al. in this issue.
Expression analysis of Mterfd2 during mouse development by in situ hybridization. For further details, see Xu et al. in this issue
The striped silversides, Atherinomorus endrachtensis, inhabiting marine lakes, which are “Islands” for marine species. The populations in marine lakes are genetically differentiated from the lagoon populations. For further details, see Gotoh et al. in this issue.
Crystal structure of the nucleosome containing human CENP-A. CENP-A molecules are colored magenta. The 121 base-pair DNA is wrapped around the histone octamer composed of H2A, H2B, H4, and CENP-A. For further details, see Tachiwana and Kurumizaka in this issue.
Asian black rats (Rattus tanezumi) from the Yambaru forests, northern Okinawa island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, with variant coat colors of white spotting and melansism (bottom) are shown, together with a wild type phenotype (top). For further details, see Kambe et al. in this issue.
Hybrids from Drosophila melanogaster y w; Int(2L)D+S/CyO, y+ females x Drosophila simulans Lhr males. Left, a non-introgression carrier viable male; right, an introgression carrier lethal male. For further details, see Maehara et al. in this issue.
The Oslms mutant (right) shows lesion mimic phenotypes and rapid senescence following maturity. The wild type plant is shown on the left. This phenotype is caused by a mutation in a gene encoding a carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase domain and two double stranded RNA binding motifs (dsRBM) containing protein. For further details, see Undan et al. in this issue.
Dual expression of major body-wall type troponin-I-2 (TNI-2) and tissue-specific TNI-3 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Top, body-wall specific expression of TNI-2 with GFP; bottom, tissue-specific expression of TNI-3 with RFP; middle, merge of TNI-2 and TNI-3. TNI-3 is strongly expressed in head, vulva and rectum. For further details, see Takashima et al. in this issue.
Natural wild rice population conserved in-situ. A pier constructed to the center of the pond allows us to access any individuals inside the population independent from water level. Left side photos show change of water level and the natural population from May to Dec. Perennial individuals inhabit predominantly in rainy season (right top panel). Annual individuals are grown at fringe areas in dry season (right down panel), which prefer self-pollination generating recessive mutants such as albino. For further details, see Wang et al. in this issue.
Schematic representation of φ29 DNA polymerase-gp3 heterodimer complex. Suppressors of φ29 gene 1 mutations were isolated and found in the intermediate domain of gp3. The intermediate domain has been reported to confer specificity to the interaction with the DNA polymerase. From the positions of the suppressors, the presence of a regulatory subdomain in the intermediate domain is newly proposed. For further details, see Tone et al. in this issue.
[top left] X-gal staining of transgenic mouse embryo carrying an AmnSINE1-lacZ construct reveals that the SINE copy serves as a brain-specific enhancer. |
[top right] In situ fluorescent hybridization of a mouse embryonic gonad shows that LINEs (green) accumulate on nuclear periphery, whereas SINEs (red) are enriched in the interior space.
[bottom left] Immunofluorescent staining reveals strong expression of Piwi (red) specifically in pole cells and primordial germ cells of fly embryo. The Piwi protein plays a pivotal role in transposon silencing in the germline.
[bottom right] Heat-activated retrotransposon is regulated by siRNA. Transgenerational transposition was observed in a mutant deficient in siRNA (left, the mutant; right, wild-type). For further details, see the special reviews in this issue.
|88-2||Dual-color FISH analysis on elongating spermatid nuclei of Drosophila simulans. The nuclei are hybridized with sex chromosome-specific probes (labeled red and green for the X and Y, respectively) and counterstained with DAPI (blue). For further details, see Yasuno et al. in this issue.|
[top left] Drosophila melanogaster with dark (left) and light (right) trident pigmentation on the thoracic segment. [top right] Breeding male cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria: Lithochromis rubripinnis with blue and red nuptial colors (upper panel), and Haplochromis sp. ‘macula’ with red and yellow nuptial colors (lower panel). [bottom] Sables from Hokkaido, Japan, with a bright yellow winter coat.
Front inset: [top] Spatial expression pattern of DrPax1b gene in zebrafish embryos at 18-somite stage from lateral view (left) and dorsal view (right). [bottom left] The DrPax1b-MO injected zebrafish embryos were scored morphologically for different degree of defects into three categories: normal embryo (upper panel), moderate morphant (middle panel), severe morphant (lower panel) at 24h stage. [bottom right] The WISH with Axin2 probe presents the development of the fin bud at normal embryo (upper panel), moderate morphant (middle panel) and severe morphant (lower panel) at 48h stage. For further details, see Liu et al. in this issue.
|88-5||Front inset: In higher plants, pollen grains germinate on the stigma and the emerging pollen tubes grow to the ovules for fertilization. Pollen expressing Arabidopsis LIM proteins (AtPLIM2s), member of actin-binding proteins, have a distinct role in actin filament formation in pollen germination and pollen tube growth. In wild type plants, pollen tubes grow around the top part of the style at 2 hr after pollination (top left panel) and arrive at the basal part of the pistil at 12 hr after pollination (top right panel). In contrast, most pollen tubes of the plim2a/plim2c double knockdown RNAi plants are in the stigma at 2 hr after pollination (bottom left panel) and are still around the middle part of the style at 12 hr after pollination (bottom right panel), leading to an occasional unfertilized seed at the bottom of the silique. For further details, see Sudo et al. in this issue.|
Front inset: A schematic drawing of the evolution of life including three domains, Bacteria, Eukarya, and Archaea. The last common ancestor has not been elucidated (hidden by cloud). Archaea strikingly resemble bacteria under the microscope (Thermococus kodakarensis cells are shown). Archaea have bacterial-like small circular genomes with defined replication origins. However, component proteins of the replication machinery are common in Archaea and Eukarya, but not in Bacteria. Many involved proteins are called with the same names. For further details, see Ishino et al. in this issue.
|89-1||[top left] Drosophila melanogaster wild type adult. [top right] Brain-Ring gland complex from the Drosophila third instar larva. The prothoracicotropic hormone-producing neurons (green) innervate the prothoracic gland which is labeled by the antibody against the ecdysone synthesizing enzyme, Shroud (magenta). [bottom left] A stuffed toy representing the structure of Drosophila antennal lobe. [bottom right] A 3D image of the Drosophila optic lobe, medulla. Photoreceptor R8 (yellow) and R7 (blue) axons innervate into the medulla layers, forming a typical fan shape.|
|89-2||The rice TRIANGULAR HULL1 (TH1) is involved in fine-tuning of spikelet development, by regulating the size of the tubercles on the abaxial surface of the lemma and palea. The th1 mutation causes a reduction in the width of the lemma and palea, resulting in a slender spikelet. Left, wild-type spikelet; right, th1-6569 spikelet. For further details, see Sato et al. in this issue.|
|89-3||Front inset: [top left] C57BL/6 strain predominantly derived from Mus musculus domesticus. [top right] MSM strain derived from wild M. m. molossinus. [bottom] A heterozygote of t-haplotype (t) and wild-type allele (t/+; left), and a compound heterozygote of Brachyury (T) and t-haplotype (T/t; right).|
|89-4||Front inset: Hyperexpansion of flow-sorted wheat chromosomes 1B and 6B (B) (one scale unit = 10 μm). For further details, see Endo et al. in this issue.|
|89-5||Front inset: Mitogenome tree of eutherian mammals given by Wu et al. in this issue (modified from Fig. 2; the pictures drawn by Utako Kikutani). It has been known that molecular phylogenetics based on mitogenomes is sometimes in conflict with the well-established tree based on multiple nuclear genes. The authors showed that dense taxon sampling with appropriate modeling in maximum likelihood analyses can recover the well-established tree. For further details, see Wu et al. in this issue.|
|89-6||Front inset: Result of PCA analysis of the differentially expressed genes in early and advanced carotid atherosclerotic plaque samples. Early and advanced carotid atherosclerotic plaque samples are in red and green, respectively. PC1 and PC2 represent the first two principal components. For further details, see Wang et al. in this issue.|
|90-1||Front inset: Abscission layer formation of wild rice Oryza rufipogon is inhibited around the vascular bundles by an interaction at two seed-shattering loci, sh4 and qSH3. Schematic drawings (top) and Scanning electron microscope photos (bottom) of abscission layer of wild rice, O. rufipogon acc. W630 (left) and the introgression line having the cultivated alleles at sh4 and qSH3 from O. sativa cv. Nipponbare in W630 background (right). For further details, see Inoue et al. in this issue.|
|90-2||Front inset: Persian wheat (left), a cultivated tetraploid wheat subspecies (Triticum turgidum subsp. carthlicum), is morphologically characterized by a long awn at an empty glume, controlled by the tetraaristatus (four-awned) gene, and postulated to have evolved through interploidy hybridization between tetraploid wheat and a hexaploid wheat subspecies (right; T. aestivum subsp. carthlicoides). Subsp. carthlicoides possesses a newly discovered allele with an inverted duplication at the Wknox1b KNOTTED1-type homeobox gene, and this peculiar mutation is quite informative for the origin of subsp. carthlicum. For further details, see Takumi and Morimoto in this issue.|
|90-3||Front inset: In this issue, a mini-review series about the genome-wide studies of human and non-human primate evolution is presented. Top panel represents an image of human evolution; copyright is granted under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. The bottom left panel represents the predicted site frequency spectrum of deleterious mutations relative to neutral mutations. The bottom right panel shows the phylogenetic tree of primates, of which nucleotide diversity was estimated at the genome-wide level. For further details, see Osada in this issue.|
|90-4||Front inset: Morphology of plants grown from irradiated seeds wild-type [left], xpf-2 [middle], and xpf-2 sog1-1 [right]. Seeds were irradiated with 150 Gy, sown on MS plates, and photographed nine days later. The xpf-2 mutant germinates normally but true leaves do not form until 17 days after irradiation, whereas xpf-2 sog1-1 displays true leaves by nine days after irradiation. In contrast, no difference was observed among the three genotypes in plants grown from unirradiated seeds. For further details, see Yoshiyama in this issue.|
|90-5||Front inset: Wild rice belonging to AA genome group. There are generally two types in Oryza rufipogon, such as annual and perennial types. The perennial type has distinct life history compared to the annual type. Only the perennial type expands its territory to Australia, which sometimes inhabits with an annual type of Oryza meridionalis. Oryza glumaepatula is another perennial type in South America. For further details, see Yin et al. in this issue.|
|91-1||Front inset: The Japanese morning glory was introduced into Japan from China as a medicinal herb. Its mutant whitish seeds as well as wild-type black seeds have long been used as laxatives. The mutation conferring whitish seeds in a medicinal cultivar is a Stowaway-like transposon insertion into the InWDR1 (also known as Ca) gene. InWDR1 encodes a WD40 repeat protein that is essential for normal seed pigmentation by proanthocyanidins and phytomelanins. For further details, see Hoshino et al. in this issue.|
Front inset: This Special Focus issue includes reviews and papers reporting findings from the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas “Correlative Gene System: Establishing Next-Generation Genetics”. The inset shows the project’s logo design.
|91-3||Front inset: Garlic is one of the most important crops and widely cultivated all over the world. This plant has been used since ancient times as a spice or medical purposes. It is possible that garlic has accumulated mutations through the process of cultivation and spread to various agroclimatic conditions. Several morphological or physiological traits of garlic accessions collected worldwide showed wide variation among regional groups of accessions. We discuss the roles of artificial and natural selection that may have caused differentiation in these traits. For further details, see Hirata et al. in this issue.|
|91-4||Front inset:The rice two opposite lemma (tol) mutant has a defect in the polarity along the lemma-palea axis of the spikelet, causing the mirror image duplication of the lemma-side half of the spikelet.The image shows a tol spikelet generating an extra lodicule at the palea side, where it is not formed in wild type.For further details, see Sugiyama et al. in this issue.|
|91-5||Front inset:The image shows scallops (Patinopecten yessoensis), which live in the complex marine environment with the innate immune system to protect themselves against microbiota.The gene encoding TRAF3 interacting protein 1 (TRAF3IP1) is significantly induced after bacterial challenge and possibly involved in scallop immune responses.For further details, see Cheng et al. in this issue.|
|91-6||Front inset:To analyze the transpositional activation of each copy of ONSEN in F2 segregant, Col-0, which has multiple copies of ONSEN, was crossed with Olympia, which has a single copy of ONSEN.For further details, see Masuda et al. in this issue.|
|92-1||Front inset: Panicle morphology of wild rice Oryza rufipogon W630 (left) and cultivated rice O. sativa Nipponbare (right). During domestication of rice, plants with awnless seeds have been selected by the ancient humans. However, the process may be complicated because many genes are involved in awn formation in wild rice. For further details, see Ikemoto et al. in this issue.|
|92-2||Front inset: Septal localization of MTSL. B. subtilis MinD has a second amphipathic α-helix of 14 residues, the membrane targeting sequence-like sequence (MTSL), which is located close to the previously reported MTS at its N-terminus. The MTSL is thought to be involved in oligomerization of MinD to achieve septal membrane localization. For further details, see Ishikawa et al. in this issue.|
|92-3||Front inset: The inset shows a schematic diagram of a chromosome end: a telomere and a subtelomere. Telomeric DNA forms a t-loop by inserting its 3’-protruding single-stranded end (indicated by a green line) into the double-stranded region. This structure is stabilized by telomeric protein complexes called shelterin (edged with blue lines).|
|92-4||Front inset: Photographs of albinos of the pond frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus from the following regions of Japan: Hiro-machi in Kure city (nAH), Kumamoto (nAK) and Ichinomiya (nAI). The wild-type frog, as well as albinos of the wrinkled frog Glandirana rugosa (rA) and the rice frog Fejervarya kawamurai (kA), are also shown. For further details, please see Miura et al. in this issue.|
|92-5||Front inset:Upper panel: A schematic diagram of peptidoglycan synthesis and the regulation of σM by YhdL/K in Bacillus subtilis. Direct sensing of cell wall damage and/or cell membrane degeneration may lead to a conformational change in YhdL structure. For further details, see Asai in this issue. Lower panel: Lipid biosynthesis pathways in B. subtilis and Escherichia coli. Phospholipids are contained in cell membranes of both microorganisms. In addition to the phospholipids, glucolipids (purple) synthesized processively by UgtP are contained in B. subtilis cell membranes. For further details, see Matsuoka in this issue. (92 words)|
|92-6||Front inset:The rice hal1-d mutant generates adaxially curled leaves, probably due to a defect in proper growth of bulliform cells.The images show transverse sections of mutant and wild-type leaf blades, highlighting the characteristic 'half-pipe' shape of the hal1-d leaf.Histological analysis revealed that the bulliform cells, which lie in the adaxial epidermis between the vascular bundles, are smaller and abnormally shaped in mutant leaves.For details, see Matsumoto et al. in this issue.|